Monday, 21 April 2014

Structural Violence and Contemporary Indigenous Health

Although colonisation is often seen as a part of our history, as a relic of the past, it is a force that has created and sustained structures within our society that cause harm to peoples’ bodies, minds and spirits. In this post, Tarapuhi briefly looks at the relationship between colonisation and contemporary indigenous health.

These opinions are my opinions and do not necessarily represent the views of any groups or individuals mentioned in this post.

Tihei Mauri Ora 1990 Robyn Kahukiwa

There are a great number of peoples across the globe who are understood as indigenous, aboriginal or native groups; each with their own unique and distinct identities, histories, biology, struggles, geographical and environmental surroundings, languages, rituals, clothing, gender relations, successes, failures, traditions, relationships with nature, relationships with the state, morals, and values. Indigenous people's and cultures are complex, modern, traditional, changing, and living.

There are, of course, distinct groups within indigenous populations in each nation, and the people within these groups also live extremely varied lives. For example, Māori represent more than 70 distinct tribes that make up the tangata whenua, the indigenous peoples, of Aotearoa/New Zealand. Many Māori do not identify with a tribe, some reject being called Māori and identify themselves in reference to their iwi (tribal) identity, or just as New Zealanders. There are those who live in rural areas, in the cities, or in between. Māori live their lives according to infinite combinations of Māori and Pākehā (non-Māori) worlds.

There are also many long standing, rich, and innovative relationships of solidarity between indigenous groups. These often manifest as a sense of spiritual and moral support, and a common experience of 'indigeneity'. 
Māori Women In Solidarity With Idle No More by Robyn Kahukiwa
The only common thread distinguishing these groups as a distinct category is their indigeneity which makes the trends pertaining to indigenous health and well-being even more alarming. Bio-medical discourse paints a dismal representation of indigenous health across all nations. Specifically indigenous peoples suffer from drastically poorer health and avoidable death rates, and have a 4-20 year difference in average life expectancy, than all other ethnicities in their respective national population (Fong et al. 2003:136), (Anderson et al. 2007: 177). Furthermore, it is estimated that 70% of chronic disease experienced by indigenous individuals is avoidable (Ring and Brown 2003: 404). Indigenous peoples incur higher incidences of most diseases including diabetes, mental disorders, cancer, and in developed countries, much higher experiences of diseases like tuberculosis and rheumatic fever (Durie 2003: 10). Reflecting this, in Aotearoa Māori have the poorest overall health status- a claim succinctly represented by an 8-9 year lower life expectancy than non-Māori (Harris et al. 2006: 1429). 

Colonisation

Although I am wary of making generalisations that may further reproduce reductive ideas about these groups, these generalisations help to highlight the perniciousness of colonisation as a force on the body, the mind, and the spirit.

To understand indigeneity, we must also understand colonisation. Colonisation refers to the historically informed, continued, purposeful, and evolving permittance of the “(mis)appropriation and transfer of power and resources from indigenous peoples to the newcomers…enabled by layer upon layer of new systems“ which “construct who will benefit and be privileged” (Reid and Robson 2000: 5). 

This allocation of power is informed by the de-humanization of indigenous peoples which appears on a spectrum that ranges from genocide to neglect, and from paternalism to romanticism (Reid and Robson 2000: 4). Historically, racism has been a feature of colonisation that has fuelled tactics and policies that cause the disenfranchisement, forced assimilation, cultural degradation, and genocide of indigenous peoples and their culture, as well a 'cultural amnesia' or erasure of these histories (Czyzewski 2011: 2). 

Structural Violence 

Structural violence is a theory that is useful to bring to light the harm caused by colonisation. It refers to the reproduction of social and economic inequality by complex, layered structures in society, such as the media, policy makers, the education system, city councils and hospitals, and highlights the violence caused by this process (Farmer et al. 2006). Colonisation is by definition a form of structural violence.

Paul Farmer, one of the most notable writers on structural violence states: "neither culture nor pure individual will is at fault; rather, historically given (and often economically driven) processes and forces conspire to constrain individual agency. Structural violence is visited upon all those whose social status denies them access to the fruits of scientific and social progress”  (Farmer et al. 2006).

This violence it is not restricted to that which causes physical suffering during “event assaults,” such as rape, torture or battery, but it also refers to what Farmer calls “sustained and insidious suffering” such as the harm and “pain born of deep poverty”, sexism, racism and other inequalities (1996: 261). Thus, violence exists in less explicit examples of inequality where it is not necessarily the “pain of hunger or the humiliation of rags, but the impossible choices you face”, the choice of which child gets to use the mosquito net, and which child must risk the chance of malaria (Kristof 2007: 443). Therefore, violence which affects people’s bodies, minds, identities, spirits and personalities. 

Robyn Kahukiwa's evocative painting at the beginning of this post acknowledges the historical and contemporary violence caused by colonisation, especially referring to the impact patriarchal structures have had in subjugating Māori.

Because structural inequality is historically informed, it often has become so entrenched into society that it is impossible to assign culpability or responsibility for the resulting violence. Within the context of colonisation especially, inequality is so entrenched that it has become invisible and normalised, and consequently may not provoke outrage or dismay from the general population (Reid and Robson 2000:3), (Farmer et al. 2006). Accordingly, in westernised nations, indigenous health disparities are often treated as a result of individual choice, or as a resistance to assimilating into ‘mainstream’ cultural ideals. For example, health disparities experienced by Māori are explained as “any mix of inferior genes, intellect, education, aptitude, ability, effort or luck” (Robson and Harris 2007: 5). 



cakeburger.com


These ideas rest upon the facade that we live in a meritocracy in which hard work and skill always create income, health and goodness-that 'all New Zealanders are born with the same opportunities'. This sets up the perception that those on the bottom rung of the social ladder may not be deserving, ‘normal’, willing to be helped or help themselves.

Therefore, drawing attention away from social and structural ethnic/racial inequalities, such as evidence showing that health inequalities are experienced by Māori across all economic brackets and therefore cannot be understood merely in reference to economic inequality or lifestyle. For example, He Ritenga Whakaaro: Māori Experiences of Health Services reports that Māori experience higher disability and morbidity rates and yet have less access to health, rehabilitation and disability services than non-Māori. Reid and Robson also state that Māori “receive lower levels of health services and poorer quality of service” than other ethnicities in our national population (2000: 5). Harris and colleagues have shown in their study, that there is a strong relationship between experiences of racism and poor health, including overall lower physical functioning, poorer mental health, tobacco use and cardiovascular disease. This study also highlights that Māori are almost ten times more likely to experience multiple types of racism in New Zealand than European/Others (Harris et al. 2006). 

Agency

Structural violence works through layered structures which "conspire to constrain individual agency" (Farmer et al. 2006). The general understanding of agency points to a person or group’s ability to understand the structures around them and essentially their “capacity to affect things” (Ortner 2006: 137). Colonisation constrains agency  as it “shapes what we know, how we understand the world and relate to it, the level of access we have to societal resources and opportunities, as well as our ability to navigate our way through the system”  (Reid and Robson 2000: 6). 



The ability to influence and understand structural influences on one's self is particularly influenced by  symbolic violence. Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic violence refers to the mechanisms that cause the victims of structural violence to internalise discrimination and thus see their place on the social hierarchy as deserved and as the ‘natural way of things’ (Bourgois and Schonberg 2009: 17). 



By acknowledging how indigenous peoples agency, and choices are constrained by colonisation, calls for self-determination and the proliferation of indigenous agency become even more relevant.

Importantly, the psyche is never fully dominated by hegemonies and thus never fully without agency, and although indigenous agency is constrained by structural violence it is not completely dissolved by it (Ortner 2006: 6). Furthermore, the impact of expressions of agency and “resistance is less than we make it out to be…the degree to which agency is constrained is correlated inversely, if not always neatly, with the ability to resist marginalisation and other forms of oppression” (Farmer 2004: 4).

Stories of resistance and expressions of agency are often swept under the rug, so as to not make visible the relationship between who succeeds and who does not. Indigenous expressions of agency are visible in the continuos efforts to reclaim, reimagine, and reinvigorate indigenous knowledge, rights, identity, and culture by indigenous academicspoliticiansactivists, and everyday people. This is occurring in various arenas, including through social networking, fashionpetitionsbusinessmusic, sports...and the list goes on.



References

Anderson, I., Crengle, S., Kamaka, M. L., Chen, T. -H., Palafox, N., & Jackson-Pulver, L. 2007 Indigenous health 1: Indigenous health in Australia, New Zealand, and the pacific. The Lancet 367: 1775-1785.
Bourgois, Philippe, & Jeffrey Schonberg 2009 “Righteous Dopefiend”. California: University of California Press.
Czyzewski, K. 2011 Colonialism as a broader social determinant of health. The International Indigenous Policy Journal 2(1): 5.
Durie, M. H. 2003 The health of Indigenous peoples: depends on genetics, politics, and socioeconomic factors. BMJ: British Medical Journal 326 (7388): 510.
Farmer, P. 2004 An anthropology of structural violence 1. Current Anthropology 45(3):305-325.
Farmer, P., Nizeye, B., Stulac, S., & Keshavjee, S. 2006 Structural violence and clinical medicine. PLoS Medicine 3(10): 449.
Farmer, Paul 1996 On Suffering and Structural Violence: A View from Below. Daedalus (125)1: 261-283.
Fong, M., Braun, K. L. & Tsark, J. U. 2003 Improving native Hawaiian health through community-based participatory research. Californian Journal of Health Promotion 1(1):136-148.
Harris, R., Tobias, M., Jeffreys, M., Waldegrave, K., Karlsen, S. & Nazroo, J. 2006 Racism and health: The relationship between experience of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Social Science & Medicine 63 (6):1428-1441.
Kristof, Nicholas D. 2007 Wretched of the Earth. New York Review of Books, May 31: 1-10.
Reid, P. & Robson, B. 2000 1 Understanding Health Inequalities. Hauora: Māori. Te Rōpū Rangahau Hauora a Eru Pōmare: 3-10.
Ring, I. & Brown, N. 2003 The health status of indigenous peoples and others: The gap is narrowing in the United States, Canada, and New Zealand, but a lot more is needed. BMJ: British Medical Journal 327 (7412): 404.
Robson B, Harris R. (eds). 2007 Hauora: Màori Standards of Health IV. A study of the years 2000–2005. Wellington: Te Ròpù Rangahau Hauora a Eru Pòmare.









84 comments:

  1. Great read! Written awesomely and enlightening points bring great awareness! Would make a big difference if more people read this. Keep it up!

    ReplyDelete
  2. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  3. then read on! Below I will share with you 7 foods that reduce inflammation naturally. These foods are called anti-inflammatory foods.https://www.healthpally.com/inflammation/

    ReplyDelete
  4. Nice to be visiting your blog again, it has been months for me. Well this article that i've been waited for so long. I need this article to complete my assignment in the college, and it has same topic with your article. Thanks, great share. Health

    ReplyDelete
  5. Medicine could handle bone fractures and increasingly attempt risky surgeries (now largely performed in sterile surgical environments) but medicines were not yet available to handle serious illnesses. Health

    ReplyDelete
  6. I think this is an informative post and it is very beneficial and knowledgeable. Therefore, I would like to thank you for the endeavors that you have made in writing this article. All the content is absolutely well-researched. Thanks... Health

    ReplyDelete
  7. Research reveals to us that great psychological well-being is much more gainful than great physical wellbeing. A positive mental standpoint expands the rate and speed of recuperation from genuine, even hazardous, sickness. Mental flexibility and prosperity gives individuals the solidarity to transform issues into difficulties into triumphs. kybell treatment

    ReplyDelete
  8. I know this is one of the most meaningful information for me. And I'm animated reading your article. But should remark on some general things, the website style is perfect; the articles are great. Thanks for the ton of tangible and attainable help. do choi nguoi lon sextoyuytin

    ReplyDelete
  9. Your post is very helpful to get some effective tips to reduce weight properly. You have shared various nice photos of the same. I would like to thank you for sharing these tips. Surely I will try this at home. Keep updating more simple tips like this.  more info

    ReplyDelete
  10. If you don"t mind proceed with this extraordinary work and I anticipate a greater amount of your magnificent blog entries.  the site with flat belly info

    ReplyDelete
  11. Friend, this web site might be fabolous, i just like it. Buy CBD Edibles Online

    ReplyDelete
  12. The human being is essentially a supernatural being, possessing a soul and living inside a body. koktale

    ReplyDelete
  13. Some of the data collected was patient satisfaction data, hospital readmission data, and obesity data. ME

    ReplyDelete
  14. the main thing that rings a bell when I consider impeccable physical wellbeing are babies - they are the best model since they run all around the spot and utilize their vitality until they nod off. In the event that we could do likewise, I'm certain we would have a superior physical wellbeing. ingredient company

    ReplyDelete
  15. Thanks for the blog loaded with so many information. Stopping by your blog helped me to get what I was looking for. ebook systeme delivrance

    ReplyDelete
  16. I really loved reading your blog. It was very well authored and easy to understand. Unlike other blogs I have read which are really not that good.Thanks alot! thoatvidiadem.net/

    ReplyDelete
  17. At last, the individual needs to ensure that the medical coverage strategy they do pick will cover all medicinal inclusion needs, click

    ReplyDelete
  18. EMC Corporation had the main situation, with a 30% offer in the individual and section level stockpiling (PELS) showcase in. blis m18 ingredient supplier

    ReplyDelete
  19. Great job for publishing such a beneficial web site. Your web log isn’t only useful but it is additionally really creative too. podiatry drill

    ReplyDelete
  20. Wow, What a Excellent post. I really found this to much informatics. It is what i was searching for.I would like to suggest you that please keep sharing such type of info.Thanks recording king open back banjo reviews

    ReplyDelete
  21. This post is very simple to read and appreciate without leaving any details out. Great work! ultra fast keto boost

    ReplyDelete
  22. I respect this article for the very much investigated substance and magnificent wording. I got so included in this material that I couldn't quit perusing. I am awed with your work and aptitude. Much obliged to you to such an extent. vaginal rejuvenation treatment

    ReplyDelete
  23. Nice to be visiting your blog again, it has been months for me. Well this article that i’ve been waited for so long. I need this article to complete my assignment in the college, and it has same topic with your article. Thanks, great share. cbd oil for sale

    ReplyDelete
  24. Hello, this weekend is good for me, since this time i am reading this enormous informative article here at my home. chiropodists tools

    ReplyDelete
  25. Incidentally, Dr. Travis made normal developments to his unique model. You can see the most recent version and read more the continuum here.buy modafinil cheap with free shipping,buy modvigil in australia

    ReplyDelete
  26. Weight reduction pills are infamous for the astonishing case that they make. Advertisements guarantee that weight reduction pills can make you smooth and thin without diet and exercise.

    best selling weight loss product

    ReplyDelete
  27. Buderim township, population approx 25,000, looks within the Sunshine Coast from your plateau of Buderim Mountain. It's 90 kms north on the Brisbane CBD CBD store

    ReplyDelete
  28. To resemble a superhuman on screen, you have to prepare like a hero in the rec center. These wellness tips from entertainer Chris Evans will make you . chris evans workout

    ReplyDelete
  29. From the meanings of wellbeing and health, it is anything but difficult to perceive any reason why a wellbeing history is mentioned when you see your doctor or other social insurance experts.what are health benefits of turmeric

    ReplyDelete
  30. Webactueel schakel je in als je een maatwerk WordPress website laten maken wilt. Door een maatwerk website te ontwikkelen is het mogelijk om meer leads te genereren. Daarbij hebben we altijd oren voor de wensen en eisen die jij als ondernemer hebt als het om jouw website gaat. Bovendien gaat het om meer dan alleen een website. Ook het toepassen van de juist online marketingstrategie helpt hier in grote mate bij. Wij kunnen dit allemaal voor je verzorgen.

    Lees meer...

    ReplyDelete
  31. For anyone who is new to CTFO CBD oil, this book can help you know a little more about this product. CBD is short for Cannabidiol, which is an ideal product if you want something to fight inflammation and plenty of other untreatable conditions. Royal CBD oil

    ReplyDelete
  32. I think this is one of the most significant information for me. And i’m glad reading your article. But should remark on some general things, The web site style is perfect, the articles is really great : D. Good job, cheers leg brace

    ReplyDelete
  33. We have sell some products of different custom boxes.it is very useful and very low price please visits this site thanks and please share this post with your friends. en finir avec la sciatique

    ReplyDelete
  34. Thank you very much for this great post. click here

    ReplyDelete
  35. It was a very good post indeed. I thoroughly enjoyed reading it in my lunch time. Will surely come and visit this blog more often. Thanks for sharing. check it out

    ReplyDelete
  36. Wow, cool post. I'd like to write like this too - taking time and real hard work to make a great article... but I put things off too much and never seem to get started. Thanks though. le miracle de la grossesse lisa olson amazon

    ReplyDelete
  37. Wow i can say that this is another great article as expected of this blog.Bookmarked this site.. view more

    ReplyDelete
  38. I can see that you are an expert at your field! I am launching a website soon, and your information will be very useful for me.. Thanks for all your help and wishing you all the success in your business. learn more

    ReplyDelete
  39. Thanks for a wonderful share. Your article has proved your hard work and experience you have got in this field. Brilliant .i love it reading. https://titangel.international/hu/hungary/

    ReplyDelete
  40. This is a great inspiring article.I am pretty much pleased with your good work.You put really very helpful information. Keep it up. Keep blogging. Looking to reading your next post. taux de diabete moyen

    ReplyDelete
  41. I recently found many useful information in your website especially this blog page. Among the lots of comments on your articles. Thanks for sharing. que faire pour faire baisser le diabete

    ReplyDelete
  42. This is my first time i visit here and I found so many interesting stuff in your blog especially it's discussion, thank you. clenbuterol achat

    ReplyDelete
  43. The consumer needs to read the label and educate themselves before taking the product. Many people who are sensitive to caffeine are surprised when the diet pill makes them feel nervous or nauseous, but this information Resurge supplement

    ReplyDelete
  44. You make so many great points here that I read your article a couple of times. Your views are in accordance with my own for the most part. This is great content for your readers. Dentist Thiensville Wi

    ReplyDelete
  45. I was reading your article and wondered if you had considered creating an ebook on this subject. Your writing would sell it fast. You have a lot of writing talent. herbal product

    ReplyDelete
  46. This is truly a great read for me. I have bookmarked it and I am looking forward to reading new articles. Keep up the good work!. Best CrossFit Shorts for Women Reviewed

    ReplyDelete
  47. Interesting post. I Have Been wondering about this issue, so thanks for posting. Pretty cool post.It 's really very nice and Useful post.Thanks Paul Krugman MasterClass Review

    ReplyDelete
  48. i read a lot of stuff and i found that the way of writing to clearifing that exactly want to say was very good so i am impressed and ilike to come again in future.. Buy Crystal Meth Online

    ReplyDelete
  49. Awesome article, it was exceptionally helpful! I simply began in this and I'm becoming more acquainted with it better! Cheers, keep doing awesome! healthy life

    ReplyDelete
  50. Thanks for a very interesting blog. What else may I get that kind of info written in such a perfect approach? I’ve a undertaking that I am simply now operating on, and I have been at the look out for such info. promethazine codeine cough syrup

    ReplyDelete
  51. Great article Lot's of information to Read...Great Man Keep Posting and update to People..Thanks CBD Honey Sticks

    ReplyDelete
  52. Very interesting blog. Alot of blogs I see these days don't really provide anything that I'm interested in, but I'm most definately interested in this one. Just thought that I would post and let you know. Best Omega 3 Fatty Acids

    ReplyDelete
  53. Thanks for a wonderful share. Your article has proved your hard work and experience you have got in this field. Brilliant .i love it reading. https://alvenda.com/phenq-walmart/

    ReplyDelete
  54. Yes i am totally agreed with this article and i just want say that this article is very nice and very informative article.I will make sure to be reading your blog more. You made a good point but I can't help but wonder, what about the other side? !!!!!!Thanks Top 10 Best CBD Vape Cartridges Brands

    ReplyDelete
  55. Though, times have largely changed and also the male nurses are considered with a diverse level of respect. Women are also more powered and also less threatened by men in their surroundings. 남성중점치료병원

    ReplyDelete
  56. Wellbeing is obviously an unpredictable, multidimensional idea. Wellbeing is, at last, inadequately characterized and hard to quantify, in spite of great endeavors by disease transmission specialists, imperative analysts, social researchers and political financial expert
    acupuncture near meisions.

    ReplyDelete
  57. I really thank you for the valuable info on this great subject and look forward to more great posts. Thanks a lot for enjoying this beauty article with me. I am appreciating it very much! Looking forward to another great article. Good luck to the author! All the best! CBDfx Topical Creams

    ReplyDelete
  58. I was reading some of your content on this website and I conceive this internet site is really informative ! Keep on putting up. Can CBD Oil Manage Symptoms Related to Blood Pressure

    ReplyDelete
  59. Hey what a brilliant post I have come across and believe me I have been searching out for this similar kind of post for past a week and hardly came across this. Thank you very much and will look for more postings from you. Royal CBD

    ReplyDelete
  60. It's a really great and useful piece of information. Thanks, and please keep up the rewarding work. Miles Morales Hoodie

    ReplyDelete
  61. The web site is lovingly serviced and saved as much as date. So it should be, thanks for sharing this with us. united health care

    ReplyDelete
  62. Fantastic blog i have never ever read this type of amazing information.
    Bill Goldberg Harley Davidson Jacket

    ReplyDelete
  63. Thank you because you have been willing to share information with us. we will always appreciate all you have done here because I know you are very concerned with our. WHAT CBD PRODUCT IS RIGHT FOR ME?

    ReplyDelete
  64. Noticing that these health worries settle down when you become intensely interested in another topic or swept into a new relationship, job or cause. cbd store

    ReplyDelete
  65. Thanks for sharing this information. I really like your blog post very much. You have really shared a informative and interesting blog post with people.. ARE FULL SPECRTRUM CBD TINCTURES THE BEST CBD PRODUCTS?

    ReplyDelete
  66. This is such a great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free. I love seeing blog that understand the value of providing a quality resource for free. Medium Strength CBD Oil

    ReplyDelete
  67. Dube' is a Nutrition Counselor, Health Coach, Personal Trainer and Figure Bodybuilding Competitor, just as the Founder of youandimprovedcoaching.com. Physical Activities

    ReplyDelete
  68. I have read all the comments and suggestions posted by the visitors for this article are very fine,We will wait for your next article so only.Thanks! footcare drill

    ReplyDelete
  69. Very good points you wrote here..Great stuff...I think you've made some truly interesting points.Keep up the good work. Urgentcare Marietta

    ReplyDelete
  70. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  71. Talk back to the cerebrum by immovably telling it to stop when health stresses enter the psyche. Move into a more sure method of reasoning since you generally have a decision in what you think about. Sars-CoV-2 surface testing

    ReplyDelete
  72. This website is awesome and I am sure the information you get there about weight loss will be beneficial to you. build muscle

    ReplyDelete
  73. Thank you very much for this useful article. I like it. apetamin pills weight gain

    ReplyDelete
  74. We are cannabis bud dispensary which offer top quality grade marijuana for sale, cannabis for sale, weed for sale with track & trace shipments,Weed Shop USA,Weed shop UK, Weed shop EUROPEbuy marijuana online,
    https://medicalmarijuanabudshop.com/shop/
     https://medicalmarijuanabudshop.com/
    buy cannabis online,marijuana mail order,
    420 mail order,
    https://medicalmarijuanabudshop.com/product-category/indica/
    buy hash online, hash for sale,
    https://medicalmarijuanabudshop.com/product-category/hash/
    buy weed online USA,
    https://medicalmarijuanabudshop.com/product-category/hybrid/
    can i order weed, can i order marijuana,
    https://medicalmarijuanabudshop.com/product-category/sativa/
    Gelato strain for sale,
    https://medicalmarijuanabudshop.com/product/gelato-strain-for-sale/
    Moon rock strain for sale,
    https://medicalmarijuanabudshop.com/product/moon-rock-strain-for-sale/
    CBD oil for sale,
    https://medicalmarijuanabudshop.com/product-category/cbd-oil-for-sale/
    Bud for sale,Website ::https://medicalmarijuanabudshop.com/Email : info@medicalmarijuanabudshop.comText:+1‪(518) 212-7793

    ReplyDelete
  75. Extortion executed against both public and private health plans costs somewhere in the range of $72 and $220 billion yearly, cbd how to take

    ReplyDelete
  76. So the outcome is that there is more medical services to spend our cash on and until as of late the vast majority of us were guaranteed and the expenses were generally covered by an outsider (government, managers). online cna classes ca

    ReplyDelete
  77. Buy Modafinil Online at your door step from one & only trusted pharma in this ERA. Buying Modafinil 100mg with Credit card.

    ReplyDelete
  78. CBD items looking like Cachets likewise contain cannabinoids, which have CBD separates. Cannabinoids and CBD fit inside these receptors that help the human body with its endeavors in keeping up great wellbeing. what does cbd edibles do


    ReplyDelete
  79. Thanks so much for this information. I have to let you know I concur on several of the points you make here and others may require some further review, but I can see your viewpoint. what is cultured ghee

    ReplyDelete
  80. The work environment health administrations utilize the abilities of numerous experts, for example, authority word related doctors, wellbeing engineers, word related hygienists, how cbd works

    ReplyDelete